Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that causes disordered ideas, beliefs and experiences. In a sense, you lose touch with reality and do not know which thoughts and experiences are true and real, and which are not.
Some people have wrong ideas about schizophrenia. For instance, it has nothing to do with a 'split personality'. Also, the vast majority of people with schizophrenia are not violent.
Schizophrenia develops in about 1 in 100 people. It can occur in men and women. The most common ages for it to first develop are 15-25 in men and 25-35 in women.
There are many possible symptoms. They are often classed into 'positive' and 'negative' symptoms. 'Positive' symptoms are those that show abnormal mental functions. 'Negative' symptoms are those that show the absence of a mental function that should normally be present.
'Positive' symptoms include the following :-
These are false beliefs that a person has, and most people from the same culture would agree that they are wrong. Even when the 'wrongness' of the belief is explained, a person with schizophrenia is convinced that they are true. For example, a person with schizophrenia may believe that neighbors are spying on them with cameras in every room, or a famous person is in love with them, or that people are plotting to kill them, or there is a conspiracy about them. These are only a few examples and delusions can be about anything.
This means hearing, seeing, feeling, smelling, or tasting things that are not real. Hearing voices is the most common. Some people hear voices that provide a running commentary on their actions, argue with them, or repeat their thoughts. The 'voices' often say things that are rude, aggressive, unpleasant, or give orders that must be followed. Some people with schizophrenia appear to talk to themselves as they respond to the voices. People with schizophrenia believe that the hallucinations are real.
C. Disordered thoughts. Thoughts may become jumbled or blocked. Thought and speech may not follow a normal logical pattern. For example, some people with schizophrenia have one or more of the following:
➙ Thought echo. This means the person hears his or her own thoughts as if they were being spoken aloud.
➙ Knight's-move thinking. This means the person moves from one train of thought to another that has no apparent connection to the first.
➙ Some people with schizophrenia may invent new words (neologisms), repeat a single word or phrase out of context (verbal stereotypy), or use ordinary words with a different, special meaning (metonyms).
➙ A. THOUGHT INSERTION.
This is when someone believes that the thoughts in their head are not their own, and that they are being put there by an outside agency.
➙ B. THOUGHT WITHDRAWAL.
This is when someone believes that thoughts are being removed from their mind by an outside agency.
➙ C. THOUGHT BROADCASTING.
This is when someone believes that their thoughts are being read or heard by others.
➙ D. THOUGHT BLOCKING.
This is when there is a sudden interruption of the train of thought before it is completed, leaving a blank. The person suddenly stops talking and cannot recall what he or she has been saying.
Everything seems an effort. For example, tasks may not be finished, concentration is poor, losing interest in social activities, and often wanting to be alone.
and much time doing nothing.
And the voice may sound monotonous.
emotions may become 'flat'. Sometimes the emotions may be odd such as laughing at something sad. Other strange behaviors sometimes occur.
Negative symptoms can make some people neglect themselves. They may not care to do anything and appear to be wrapped up in their own thoughts. Negative symptoms can also lead to difficulty with education, which can contribute to difficulties with employment. For families and carers, the negative symptoms are often the most difficult to deal with. Persistent negative symptoms tend to be the main cause of long-term disability.
Families may only realize with hindsight that the behavior of a relative has been gradually changing over a period of time. Recognizing these changes can be particularly difficult if the illness develops during the teenage years when it is normal for some changes in behavior to occur.
Other symptoms that occur in some cases include: difficulty planning, memory problems and obsessive compulsive symptoms.
Some of the symptoms that occur in schizophrenia also occur in other mental illnesses such as depression, mania, or after taking some illegal drugs. Therefore, the diagnosis may not be clear at first. As a rule, the symptoms need to be present for several weeks before a doctor will make a firm diagnosis of schizophrenia. Not all symptoms are present in all cases. Different forms of schizophrenia occur depending upon the main symptoms that develop. For example, people with 'paranoid schizophrenia' mainly have positive symptoms which include delusions that people are trying to harm them. In contrast, some people mainly have negative symptoms and this is classed as 'simple schizophrenia'. Some people have a mix of positive and negative symptoms.
Sometimes symptoms develop quickly over a few weeks or so. Family and friends may recognize that the person is ill. Sometimes symptoms develop slowly over months and the person may gradually become withdrawn, lose friends, jobs, etc, before the illness is recognized.
The exact cause is not known. It is thought that the balance of certain brain chemicals (neurotransmitters) is altered. Neurotransmitters are needed to pass messages between brain cells. An altered balance of these may cause the symptoms. It is not clear why changes occur in the neurotransmitters.
Genetic (hereditary) factors are thought to be important. For example, a close family member (child, brother, sister, parent) of someone with schizophrenia has a 1 in 10 chance of also developing the illness. This is 10 times the normal chance. A child born to a mother and father who both have schizophrenia has a 1 in 2 chance of developing it too.
However, one or more factors appear to be needed to trigger the illness in people who are genetically prone to it.
➙ Stress such as relationship problems, financial difficulties, social isolation, bereavement, etc.
➙ A viral infection during the mother's pregnancy, or in early childhood.
➙ A lack of oxygen at the time of birth that may damage a part of the brain.
➙ Illegal drugs may trigger the illness in some people. For example, heavy cannabis users are six times more likely to develop schizophrenia than non-users. Many other drugs of abuse, such as amphetamines, cocaine, ketamine, and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) can trigger a schizophrenia-like illness.
Treatment and care is usually based in the community rather than at hospitals. Most areas of the UK have a community mental health care team which includes psychiatrists, nurses, psychologists, social workers, etc. A 'key worker' such as a community psychiatric nurse or psychiatric social worker is usually allocated to co-ordinate the care for each person with schizophrenia.
However, some people need to be admitted to hospital for a short time. This is sometimes done when the illness is first diagnosed so that treatment can be quickly started. Hospital admission may also be needed for a while at other times if symptoms become severe. A small number of people have such a severe illness that they remain in hospital long-term.
People with schizophrenia often do not realize or accept that they are ill. Therefore, sometimes when persuasion fails, some people are admitted to hospital for treatment against their will by use of the Mental Health Act. This means that doctors and social workers can force a person to go to hospital. This is only done when the person is thought to be a danger to themselves or others.
Medication is used to relieve the symptoms. Medication tends to work best to ease positive symptoms, but is often not very good at easing negative symptoms. Medication is also used to prevent recurring episodes of symptoms (relapses). Therefore, medication is usually taken on a long-term basis. The drugs used are called 'antipsychotics'. They work by altering the balance of some neurotransmitters (brain chemicals).
There are many different antipsychotic drugs, and different ones may be used in different circumstances. They are broadly divided into two categories:
These are sometimes called 'second generation' antipsychotics and include: Amisulpride, Aripiprazole, Clozapine, Olanzapine, Quetiapine, Risperidone and Zyprasidone. One of these drugs are commonly used 'first line' for new cases. This is because they seem to have a good balance between chance of success and the risk of side-effects. However, if you are already taking a 'typical' drug and feel well on it, there is no need to change to a newer one.
These are sometimes called 'first generation' antipsychotics and include: Chlorpromazine, Thioridazine, Trifluoperazine, Haloperidol, Flupentixol, Zuclopenthixol, and Sulpiride.
There are some differences between the various antipsychotic drugs. Therefore, one may be better for an individual than another. For example, some are more 'sedating' than others. A specialist in psychiatry usually advises on which to use in each case. Sometimes, if one does not work so well, a different one is tried and may work well.
A good response to medication occurs in about 7 out of 10 cases. However, symptoms may take 2-4 weeks to ease after starting medication, and it can take several weeks for full improvement.
Even when symptoms ease, medication is normally continued long-term. This aims to prevent relapses, or to limit the number and severity or relapses. However, if you only have one episode of symptoms that clears completely with treatment, one option is to try coming off medication after 1-2 years. Your doctor will advise.
In some cases, a long acting injection of an antipsychotic drug is used once symptoms have eased. The drug from a depot injection is slowly released into the body and is given every 2-4 weeks. This aims to prevent relapses. The main advantage of depot injections is that you do not have to remember to take tablets every day.
Side-effects from antipsychotic drugs can sometimes be troublesome. There is often a 'trade-off' between easing symptoms and having to put up with some side-effects from treatment. The different antipsychotic drugs can have different types of side-effects. Also, sometimes one drug causes side-effects in some people and not in others. Therefore, it is not unusual to try two or more different drugs before one is found that is best suited to an individual.
The following are the main side-effects that sometimes occur. However, a full list of possible side-effects is given on the information sheet that comes in each drug packet.
➙ Common side-effects include: dry mouth, blurred vision, flushing and constipation. These may ease off when you get used to the drug.
➙ Drowsiness (sedation) is also common but may be an indication that the dose is too high. A reduced dose may be an option.
➙ Some people develop weight gain. Weight gain may increase the risk of diabetes and heart problems in the longer term. This appears to be a particular problem with the atypical antipsychotics, notably Clozapine and Olanzapine.
➙ Parkinsonism - this can cause symptoms similar to those that occur in people with Parkinson's disease. For example, tremor and muscle stiffness.
➙ Akathisia - which is like a restlessness of the legs.
➙ Dystonia - which means abnormal movements of the face and body.
➙ Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder that can occur if you take antipsychotics for several years. It causes rhythmical, involuntary movements. This is usually lip-smacking and tongue-rotating movements, although it can affect the arms and legs too. About 1 in 5 people treated with typical antipsychotics eventually develop Tardive Dyskinesia.
Atypical antipsychotic drugs are thought to be less likely to cause movement disorder side-effects than typical antipsychotic drugs. This reduced incidence of movement disorder is the main reason why an atypical antipsychotic is often used first-line. Atypicals do, however, have their own risks, in particular, the risk of weight gain. If movement disorder side-effects occur, then other drugs may be used to try to counteract them.
These include a variety of 'talking' treatments such as Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) and education about the illness. These treatments are not alternatives, but are used in some cases in addition to medication when symptoms have eased. They may help people with schizophrenia and their families to understand and cope with the illness. There is some evidence that they also help to reduce distress and help to prevent relapses.
This is very important. Often the 'key-worker' plays a vital role. However, families, friends and local support groups can also be major sources of help. Contact details of the head offices of the main support organizations are listed at the end of this leaflet. But these organizations also have many local groups throughout the UK.
It is quite common for people with schizophrenia not to look after themselves so well. Such things as smoking, lack of exercise, obesity, and an unhealthy diet are more common than average in people with schizophrenia. Weight gain may be a side effect of antipsychotic drugs. All of these factors may lead to an increased chance of developing heart disease and diabetes in later life.
Therefore, as with everyone else in the population, people with schizophrenia are encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle - not to smoke, to take regular exercise, to eat healthily, etc.
➙ In most cases there are recurring episodes of symptoms (relapses). Most people in this group live relatively independently with varying amount of support. The frequency and duration of each relapse can vary. Some people recover completely between relapses. Some people improve between relapses but never quite fully recover. Treatment often prevents relapses, or limits the number and severity of relapses.
➙ In some cases, there is only one episode of symptoms that lasts a few weeks or so. This is followed by a complete recovery, or substantial improvement without any further relapses. It is difficult to give an exact figure as to how often this occurs. Perhaps 2 in 10 cases or less.
➙ Up to 2 in 10 people with schizophrenia are not helped much by treatment and need long-term dependent care. For some this is in secure accommodation.
➙ Depression is a common complication of schizophrenia.
➙ It is thought that up to a third of people with schizophrenia abuse alcohol and/or illegal drugs. Helping or treating such people can be difficult.
➙ About 1 in 10 people with schizophrenia commit suicide.
➙ Treatment is started soon after symptoms begin.
➙ Symptoms develop quickly over several weeks rather than slowly over several months.
➙ The main symptoms are positive symptoms rather than negative symptoms.
➙ The illness develops in a relatively older person (over 25).
➙ Symptoms ease well with medication.
➙ Treatment is taken as advised (that is, 'compliance' with treatment is good).
➙ There is good family and social support which reduces anxiety and stress.
➙ Abuse with illegal drugs or alcohol does not occur.
➙ Newer drugs and better psychological treatments give hope that the outlook is improving.
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Headache is a very common disease. Common headache are due to migraine, tension headache, chronic daily headache, cluster headache. This is also due to increased blood pressure. Other causes of continuous headache are depression and persistent stress.
Treatment of headache depends on diagnosis. To diagnose it proper history taking and enquiry about work and associated stress is very important. Before starting treatment we must rule out medical cause of headache by investigations. For example dull, severe and continuous headache must be ruled out by brain radio investigation.
Headache is usually of two types primary and secondary. Primary headache is independent in nature and it could be episodic and continuous. Most common cause of episodic headache is migraine, cluster headache and tension headache. Continuous headache could be due to chronic daily headache and depression and stress.
Secondary headache is due to blood pressure, Tumour, post head injury and subarachnoid haemorrhage etc.
Depression is a state of mind in which person biological function like sleep, appetite and bowel habit are disturbed along with low energy lack of interest in work, surrounding and socialisation. It also leads to helplessness, hopelessness and worthlessness. In severe case person start thinking about suicide. Long standing depression may lead to social cut-off and loss of jobs as well.
In less educated people multiple somatic symptoms such as headache, body ache , gas formation , unexplained other symptoms , sleep disturbance , heaviness or lightheadedness are common symptoms . Educated or intelligent people will complain of lack energy, lack of charm or meaning in life, fatigued feeling, hopelessness and worthless feeling along with sleep disturbance and lack or increased appetite are usual symptoms.
Symptoms of depression can be classified into following groups.
(A) DEPRESSED MOOD- this is hallmark of all depression regardless of other associated symptoms. It is sustained emotional state that is characterised by sadness, low morale, misery, discouragement, hopelessness, emptiness, distress, pessimism etc. it is different in quantitative term as it is more intense than normal emotional response in bad situation.
(B) ANHEDONIA- is loss of interest. Patient is unable to draw pleasure from previously enjoyable activities. In severe cases they abandon most of the things they valued in life.
(c)COGNITIVE SYMPTOMS- difficulty in concentrating, negative thoughts, low self-esteem and self-confidence, suicidal idea are some most common cognitive symptoms. In severe case delusions of nihilism are also present.
(D) PSYCHOMOTOR DISTURBANCE - It can be aggression, agitation or retardation. Aggression is usually associated with irritability and restlessness. Retardation is associated with lack of initiative, mask like facial expression, emotional sluggishness and increased time to answer in response to question.
(E)VEGETATIVE SYMPTOMS - this is characterised by increased sleep or decreased sleep, increased appetite or decreased appetite, decreased libido and motivation.
(F) ANXIETY SYMPTOMS- are usually part of depression.